How Can We Modulate Aging Through Nutrition, Physical Exercise? An Epigenetic Approach



May 10, 2023

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  • Aging-US published this trending review on April 20, 2023, in Volume 15, Issue 8, entitled, “How can we modulate aging through nutrition and physical exercise? An epigenetic approach" by researchers from Algarve Biomedical Center, Research Institute (ABC-RI), University of Algarve Campus Gambelas, Faro 8005-139, Portugal; Algarve Biomedical Center (ABC), University of Algarve Campus Gambelas, Faro 8005-139, Portugal; Faculty of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences (FMCB), University of Algarve Campus Gambelas, Faro 8005-139, Portugal; Department of Critical Care, William Osler Health System, Etobicoke, Ontario, Canada; Champalimaud Research Program, Champalimaud Centre for the Unknown, Lisbon, Portugal. DOI - Corresponding author - Pedro Castelo-Branco - Abstract The World Health Organization predicts that by 2050, 2.1 billion people worldwide will be over 60 years old, a drastic increase from only 1 billion in 2019. Considering these numbers, strategies to ensure an extended “healthspan” or healthy longevity are urgently needed. The present study approaches the promotion of healthspan from an epigenetic perspective. Epigenetic phenomena are modifiable in response to an individual’s environmental exposures, and therefore link an individual’s environment to their gene expression pattern. Epigenetic studies demonstrate that aging is associated with decondensation of the chromatin, leading to an altered heterochromatin structure, which promotes the accumulation of errors. In this review, we describe how aging impacts epigenetics and how nutrition and physical exercise can positively impact the aging process, from an epigenetic point of view. Canonical histones are replaced by histone variants, concomitant with an increase in histone post-translational modifications. A slight increase in DNA methylation at promoters has been observed, which represses transcription of previously active genes, in parallel with global genome hypomethylation. Aging is also associated with deregulation of gene expression - usually provided by non-coding RNAs - leading to both the repression of previously transcribed genes and to the transcription of previously repressed genes. Age-associated epigenetic events are less common in individuals with a healthy lifestyle, including balanced nutrition, caloric restriction and physical exercise. Healthy aging is associated with more tightly condensed chromatin, fewer PTMs and greater regulation by ncRNAs. Sign up for free Altmetric alerts about this article - Subscribe for free publication alerts from Aging - Keywords - aging, epigenetics, nutrition, caloric restriction, physical exercise About Aging-US Launched in 2009, Aging-US publishes papers of general interest and biological significance in all fields of aging research and age-related diseases, including cancer—and now, with a special focus on COVID-19 vulnerability as an age-dependent syndrome. Topics in Aging-US go beyond traditional gerontology, including, but not limited to, cellular and molecular biology, human age-related diseases, pathology in model organisms, signal transduction pathways (e.g., p53, sirtuins, and PI-3K/AKT/mTOR, among others), and approaches to modulating these signaling pathways. Please visit our website at​​ and connect with us: SoundCloud - Facebook - Twitter - Instagram - YouTube - LinkedIn - Pinterest - Media Contact 18009220957 MEDIA@IMPACTJOURNALS.COM

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