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Senescence-Associated Exosomes Transfer miRNA-Induced Fibrosis to Neighboring Cells

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March 16, 2023

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  • Aging-US published this trending research paper in Volume 15, Issue 5, entitled, "Senescence-associated exosomes transfer miRNA-induced fibrosis to neighboring cells" by researchers from the School of Engineering, Center for Biomedical Engineering, Brown University, Providence, RI; Molecular Biology, Cell Biology, and Biochemistry, Brown University, Providence, RI. DOI - https://doi.org/10.18632/aging.204539 Corresponding authors - Michelle R. Dawson - michelle_dawson@brown.edu Abstract Radiation-induced fibrosis is a common side effect of radiotherapy, which is the most common treatment for cancer. However, radiation also causes p53-mediated cell cycle arrest, prolonged expression of p21, and the development of senescence in normal cells that reside in irradiated tissues. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) accumulate in primary tumor sites because of their natural tropism for inflammatory and fibrotic tissues. MSCs are extremely sensitive to low doses of ionizing radiation and acquire senescence as a result of bystander radiation effects. Senescent cells remain metabolically active but develop a potent senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) that correlates to hyperactive secretion of cytokines, pro-fibrotic growth factors, and exosomes (EXOs). Integrative pathway analysis highlighted that radiation-induced senescence significantly enriched cell-cycle, extracellular matrix, transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling, and vesicle-mediated transport genes in MSCs. EXOs are cell-secreted nanovesicles (a subclass of small extracellular vesicles) that contain biomaterials—proteins, RNAs, microRNAs (miRNAs)—that are critical in cell-cell communication. miRNA content analysis of secreted EXOs further revealed that radiation-induced senescence uniquely altered miRNA profiles. In fact, several of the standout miRNAs directly targeted TGF-β or downstream genes. To examine bystander effects of radiation-induced senescence, we further treated normal MSCs with senescence-associated EXOs (SA-EXOs). These modulated genes related to TGF-β pathway and elevated both alpha smooth muscle actin (protein increased in senescent, activated cells) and Ki-67 (proliferative marker) expression in SA-EXO treated MSCs compared to untreated MSCs. We revealed SA-EXOs possess unique miRNA content that influence myofibroblast phenotypes via TGF-β pathway activation. This highlights that SA-EXOs are potent SASP factors that play a large role in cancer-related fibrosis. Sign up for free Altmetric alerts about this article - https://aging.altmetric.com/details/email_updates?id=10.18632%2Faging.204539 Subscribe for free publication alerts from Aging - https://www.aging-us.com/subscribe-to-toc-alerts Keywords - aging, radiation-induced senescence, exosomes (EXOs), microRNA (miRNA), transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) About Aging-US Launched in 2009, Aging-US publishes papers of general interest and biological significance in all fields of aging research and age-related diseases, including cancer—and now, with a special focus on COVID-19 vulnerability as an age-dependent syndrome. Topics in Aging-US go beyond traditional gerontology, including, but not limited to, cellular and molecular biology, human age-related diseases, pathology in model organisms, signal transduction pathways (e.g., p53, sirtuins, and PI-3K/AKT/mTOR, among others), and approaches to modulating these signaling pathways. Please visit our website at https://www.Aging-US.com​​ and connect with us: SoundCloud - https://soundcloud.com/Aging-Us Facebook - https://www.facebook.com/AgingUS/ Twitter - https://twitter.com/AgingJrnl Instagram - https://www.instagram.com/agingjrnl/ YouTube - https://www.youtube.com/@AgingJournal LinkedIn - https://www.linkedin.com/company/aging/ Pinterest - https://www.pinterest.com/AgingUS/ Media Contact 18009220957 MEDIA@IMPACTJOURNALS.COM

    Cell CultureCell ScienceMicrofluidicsMolecular Biology

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