Often X-ray synchrotron or neutron radiation based methods are used to study Lithium-ion batteries. While neutron scattering is very sensitive to light elements such as Li, X-ray powder diffraction provides a much higher resolution of the cell parameters and therefore both are complementary techniques.
Pouch cell batteries can be used in combination with hard X-rays in transmission geometry to perform in-situ and in-operando studies during charge/discharge cycles and for aging studies. It is then possible to correlate variations in the crystallographic structure of the elements in the cell, directly with the amount of Lithium incorporated in the electrodes.
This video shows a demonstration of how to set up in operando XRD experiments on full batteries.
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